Credits & Contact
Producer: Matthew Pinsker
House Divided Project
PO Box 1773 / Dickinson College
Carlisle, PA 17013
Mapping the Exhibition
View NCC Map (DRAFT - Unlisted) in a larger map
Tag Archives: Images
Important primary sources include Jesse Torrey’s A Portraiture of Domestic Slavery, in the United States (1817) and The Moral Instructor and Guide to Virtue and Happiness (1819). Torrey’s book was published in London as American Slave Trade in 1822.
Places to Visit
No structures or sites related to Jesse Torrey, Jr. exist. Torrey was born in New Lebanon, New York.
Some of the images that Torrey created and published in A Portraiture of Domestic Slavery, in the United States (1817) are in the slideshow below.
A key primary source is Solomon Northup’s Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841, and Rescued in 1853 (1853). In addition, see “An Account of Solomon Northup” from the New York Times on January 20, 1853 and an advertisement for Northrup’s book in the August 26, 1853 issue of the Liberator. You can read other accounts in the “North American Slave Narratives” collection at the Documenting the American South project.
Places to Visit
A historical marker on Northrup is located in Saratoga Springs, New York.
A key secondary source is Mary Kay Ricks’ Escape on the Pearl: The Heroic Bid for Freedom on the Underground Railroad (2007). In addition, a short essay from the Washington Post Magazine has been reposted on this flickr page. Other sources include The Case of the Edmondson Sisters (1848) and Harriet Beecher Stowe’s The Edmondson Family and the Capture of the Schooner Pearl (1856).
Places to Visit
The Edmondson sisters were imprisoned at the Bruin Slave Jail, which is on the National Register of Historic Places and located at 1707 Duke Street in Alexandria, Virginia. In 1854 Harriet Beecher Stowe explained in The Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin that she used information about the jail to help … Read the rest
A key primary source is William Still’s The Underground Rail Road (1872). In addition, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia has Still’s “Journal C of Station No. 2 of the Underground Railroad, 1852-1857” and the “Minute Book of the Vigilant Committee of Philadelphia.” have been digitized and are available online. Several historians have focused on Still’s work as an abolitionist, including Larry Gara’s “William Still and the Underground Railroad” Pennsylvania History (1961) and Stephen G. Hall’s “To Render the Private Public: William Still and the Selling of the Underground Rail Road,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (2003). Other important sources on the Underground Railroad include Robert Clemens Smedley’s History of … Read the rest
The Virginia African American Heritage Program has a short essay about the Franklin and Armfield office on their website. In addition, Edward E. Baptist uses Isaac Franklin and John Armfield as an example in his article “”Cuffy,” “Fancy Maids,” and “One-Eyed Men”: Rape, Commodification, and the Domestic Slave Trade in the United States,” American Historical Review (2001). Robert H. Gudmestad also discuses the two slave dealers in A Troublesome Commerce: The Transformation of the Interstate Slave Trade (2003).
Places to Visit
Franklin and Armfield’s office became a National Historic Landmark in 1978 and is now home to the Freedom House Museum. The museum opened in 2008 and is located in Alexandria, Virginia at 1315 Duke … Read the rest
The key primary sources on on Dickinson Gorsuch and the Christiana Riot are William Still’s The Underground Rail Road (1872), David R. Forbes’ A True Story of the Christiana Riot (1898), and Jonathan Katz’s Resistance at Christiana: The Fugitive Slave Rebellion, Christiana Pennsylvania, September 11, 1851: A Documentary Account (1974). Important secondary sources include William Uhler Hensel’s The Christiana Riot and the Treason Trials of 1851: An Historical Sketch (1911), Thomas Slaughter’s Bloody Dawn: The Christiana Riot and Racial Violence in the Antebellum North (1991), and Fergus M. Bordewich’s Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad, America’s First Civil Rights Movement (2006). You can also read Mark G. Jaede’s short essay about the riot in the Encyclopedia of Slave … Read the rest
Newspaper articles and other publications related to the event were published in The Boston Slave Riot, and Trial of Anthony Burns in1854. Other important primary sources include Charles Emery Stevens’ Anthony Burns: A History (1856), E. H. Gray’s Assaults Upon Freedom! A Discourse, Occassioned by the Rendition of Anthony Burns (1854), Theodore Parker’s The New Crime Against Humanity: A Sermon Preached at the Music Hall, in Boston, on Sunday, June 4, 1854 (1854) , and Thomas Wentworth Higginson’s Massachusetts In Mourning: A Sermon, Preached in Worcester, on Sunday, June 4, 1854 (1854). Henry David Thoreau also responded to Burns’ situation with an essay entitled “Slavery in Massachusetts” in 1854. In addition, the Massachusetts Historical Society has several collections with material related to Burns’ case, such as … Read the rest
The Wisconsin Historical Society has several primary sources related to Glover, including a 1852 Reward Advertisement from the St. Louis (MO) Republican and an April 1854 article from the (Stevens Point) Wisconsin Pinery. Also see Henry E. Legler’s 1898 essay, “Rescue of Joshua Glover, a Runaway Slave.” Key secondary sources include H. Robert Baker’s The Rescue of Joshua Glover: A Fugitive Slave, the Constitution, and the Coming of the Civil War (2006) and Ruby West Jackson and Walter T. McDonald’s Finding Freedom: The Untold Story of Joshua Glover, Runaway Slave (2007).
Places to Visit
A historical marker about Glover’s rescue is located at the intersection of East Kilbourn Avenue and North Jackson Street in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Images… Read the rest
Though his family connections alone guaranteed a bright legal future, the young Moncure Conway was an indifferent law student. Despite the urging of his numerous cousins to take up his place as an active defender of the South, he was already having significant problems justifying his beloved Virginia’s maintenance of slavery. Despite this, he served in 1850 as the secretary of the Southern Rights Association in Warrenton, and seemed in his momentary embracing of the recently published racial theories of Louis Agassiz to be searching for any justification for human bondage. Despairing of the law, he pleased his parents at last when on his nineteenth birthday he became a Methodist circuit rider preacher, assigned to the Rockville, Maryland area. During … Read the rest
The online Dred Scott Case Collection (Missouri State Archives & Washington University) contains over 100 documents and provides information on trials from the first Circuit Court Case in 1846 to the Supreme Court decision in 1857. In addition, the St. Louis Circuit Court Historical Records Project created the “Freedom Suits Case Files, 1814-1860,” which has 301 petitions from individuals who attempted to prove in court that they were free. Other books and pamphlets are online at the Library of Congress’ Slaves and the Courts, 1740-1860 collection and at Cornell University’s Samuel J. May Anti-Slavery Collection. In addition, you can read the full opinions of all Supreme Court justices in Benjamin Chew Howard’s Report of the Decision … Read the rest
The 1857 image of fugitive slaves was originally published in William Still’s The Underground Railroad (1872). This section of Still’s book describes the incident depicted in that image. As for the 1862 image, it was appeared in Harper’s Weekly Magazine on November 8.
October 28, 1857 – “Twenty-eight fugitives Escaping from the Eastern Shore of Maryland” – See image record on House Divided.
November 1862 – Captured African-Americans Being Driven South, artist’s impression – See image record on House Divided.
Life & Family
Abraham Lincoln was a southerner who led the North during the Civil War. Born on February 12, 1809, the same day as scientist Charles Darwin, Lincoln began his life on a farm in Kentucky before moving as a young child to Indiana and eventually to Illinois. He settled in Springfield, married Mary Todd, and raised four boys (two of whom died before he did). Lincoln was six-feet, four inches tall and weighed about 180 pounds. He was well respected as a politician and attorney and well-liked for his story-telling abilities. Lincoln served one term in Congress where he gained notice for opposing the Mexican War but otherwise had no experience in Washington before becoming president. During the 1850s, … Read the rest
Important primary sources on Brown’s Harpers Ferry raid include James Redpath’s The Public Life of Capt. John Brown (1860), Franklin B. Sanborn’s The Life and Letters of John Brown, Liberator of Kansas, and Martyr of Virginia (1885), and Richard J. Hinton’s John Brown and His Men; With Some Account of the Roads Traveled to Reach Harper’s Ferry (1894). Osborne Anderson, who participated in Brown’s raid but managed to escape, also published his account in 1861: A Voice from Harper’s Ferry: A Narrative of Events at Harper’s Ferry. Important secondary sources include Benjamin Quarles’ Allies for Freedom; Blacks and John Brown (1974), Paul Finkelman’s His Soul Goes Marching On: Responses to John Brown and the Harpers Ferry Raid (1995), … Read the rest
Anderson published his account of Brown’s raid in 1861 as A Voice from Harper’s Ferry: A Narrative of Events at Harper’s Ferry. Other important primary sources include James Redpath’s The Public Life of Capt. John Brown (1860), Franklin B. Sanborn’s The Life and Letters of John Brown, Liberator of Kansas, and Martyr of Virginia (1885), and Richard J. Hinton’s John Brown and His Men; With Some Account of the Roads Traveled to Reach Harper’s Ferry (1894). Important secondary sources include Benjamin Quarles’ Allies for Freedom; Blacks and John Brown (1974), Paul Finkelman’s His Soul Goes Marching On: Responses to John Brown and the Harpers Ferry Raid (1995), David S. Reynolds’ John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, … Read the rest
Life & Family
In late 1860 South Carolina Governor Gist William Henry Gist referred to the “John Brown Pike” in his message to the state legislature. As the Charleston (SC) Mercury reported, Ruffin gave this pike to South Carolina to display in January 1860 and included a note which read in part: “Sample of the favors designed for us by our NORTHERN BRETHREN.” When John Brown attacked Harpers Ferry in October 1859, he brought pikes with him as a way to arm the slaves who rebelled.
Key primary sources include Ruffin’s The Political Economy of Slavery (1857), William K. Scarborough’s three volume Diary of Edmund Ruffin (1972-89), and David F. Allmendinger’s Incidents of My Life: Edmund Ruffin’s Autobiographical Essays… Read the rest